Tuesday, 30 June 2015

Introduction to Geology and Its Sub Disciplines Notes

Geology: Geology derived from Greek Geo means Earth and logy means study. Geology is branch of science which deals with scientific study of earth and the rocks which it is compose, it also deals with the relationship between our Earth sun and solar system etc.
Geology tells us about plate tectonics, the paleo-climate, and the history of evolution of life. Geology also helps us in the exploration of hydrocarbon, mineral, placer deposits and extraction of water. It gives us a clear visual of natural hazard, environmental problem and the changes in ancient climate.
 Geology is majorly concern about Earth and its process . There are several disciplines or branches of Geology which are mostly concern about hydrocarbons, minerals, hazards, tectonic activities and other processes. The branches of Geology are such as Tectonics, Petrology, Paleontology, mineralogy and straitgraphy etc these are the main branches of Geology within these branches there are many more sub branches.
Some of main branches are as follow:

Tectonics: - The branch of Geology that’s concern about the scientific study of movement of Plates at a large scale. The plates float on the mantle, the movement of  plates generates earthquakes in the earth crust. The plate tectonics is the very important to study the nature of Earthquakes.
This field helps to understand the other disciplines of Geology such as Petrology, Structural Geology, Stratigraphy, Geophysics, marine Geology and Geochemistry. Plate Tectonics is use to understand how the continents and oceans, mountain ranges, rift valleys and volcanoes are originates. It also helps us to find hydrocarbons deposits and ore deposits.

Petrology: - It is the study about rocks, origin and their composition. It has also a relationship between the sub discipline of Mineralogy such as Optical mineralogy, Petrography to manipulate the texture and the composition of rocks.
 Petrology sub branches are Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary Petrology .Igneous Petrology concern about igneous bodies and their compositions. The rock bodies formed from lava are called Igneous rocks. Metamorphic Petrology is the study of rock how they are formed under high temperature and pressure. Sedimentary Petrology is the study of Sedimentary rocks their composition. They are very important for Hydrocarbons’.

Paleontology:- The scientific study of ancient remains of living organisms. Paleontology is intermediate product of Biology and Geology but different from Archaeology. With the help of Paleontology fossils, their ages and their occurrence are studied.
It has various sub disciplines:
Micropaleontology, Paleobotany, Invertebrate paleontology, vertebrate paleontology etc .

Mineralogy:- scientific study of properties, chemistry and Crystal Structure of Minerals. It is very important to know the nature of rocks, because rock is aggregate of one or more minerals.
Modern mineralogy, Physical Mineralogy, Chemical Mineralogy, Biomineralogy, Optical Mineralogy and Crystallography etc are some disciplines of Mineralogy.

Stratigraphy:- is a branch Geology deal with the layering of rocks “Stratification” or rock layers “Strata”. It is mainly used to study about sedimentary and volcanic rock beds and their correlations. Two subfields of Stratigraphy are Lithostratigraphy and Biostratigraphy. This field deals with age, correlation, depositional environments and bedding of rocks.